مسرحية تاجر البندقية لوليام شكسبير مع الترجمة The Merchant of Venice By William Shakespeare

مسرحية تاجر البندقية لوليام شكسبير مع الترجمة The Merchant of Venice  By William Shakespeare

The Merchant of Venice
By William Shakespeare

The Merchant of Venice
Plot Overview
   Antonio, a Venetian merchant, complains to his friends of a melancholy that he cannot explain. His friend Bassanio is desperately in need of money to court Portia, a wealthy heiress who
lives in the city of Belmont. Bassanio asks Antonio for a loan in order to travel in style to Portia’s estate. Antonio agrees, but is unable to make the loan himself because his own money is all invested in a number of trade ships that are still at sea. Antonio suggests that Bassanio secure the loan from one of the city’s moneylenders and name Antonio as the loan’s guarantor. In Belmont, Portia expresses sadness over the terms of her father’s will, which stipulates that she must marry the man who correctly chooses one of three caskets. None of Portia’s current suitors are to her liking, and she and her lady-in-waiting, Nerissa, fondly remember a visit paid some time before by Bassanio.
In Venice, Antonio and Bassanio approach Shylock, a Jewish moneylender, for a loan. Shylock nurses a long-standing grudge against Antonio, who has made a habit of berating Shylock and other Jews for their usury, the practice of loaning money at exorbitant rates of interest, and who undermines their business by offering interest-free loans. Although Antonio refuses to apologize for his behavior, Shylock acts agreeably and offers to lend Bassanio three thousand ducats with no interest. Shylock adds, however, that should the loan go unpaid, Shylock will be entitled to a pound of Antonio’s own flesh. Despite Bassanio’s warnings, Antonio agrees. In Shylock’s own household, his servant Lancelot decides to leave Shylock’s service to work for Bassanio, and Shylock’s daughter Jessica schemes to elope with Antonio’s friend Lorenzo. That night, the streets of Venice fill up with revelers, and Jessica escapes with Lorenzo by dressing as his page. After a night of celebration, Bassanio and his friend Graziano leave for Belmont, where Bassanio intends to win Portia’s hand.
In Belmont, Portia welcomes the prince of Morocco, who has come in an attempt to choose the right casket to marry her. The prince studies the inscriptions on the three caskets and chooses the gold one, which proves to be an incorrect choice. In Venice, Shylock is furious to find that his daughter has run away, but rejoices in the fact that Antonio’s ships are rumored to have been wrecked and that he will soon be able to claim his debt. In Belmont, the prince of Aragon also visits Portia. He, too, studies the caskets carefully, but he picks the silver one, which is also incorrect. Bassanio arrives at Portia’s estate, and they declare their love for one another. Despite Portia’s request that he wait before choosing, Bassanio immediately picks the correct casket, which is made of lead. He and Portia rejoice, and Graziano confesses that he has fallen in love with Nerissa. The couples decide on a double wedding. Portia gives Bassanio a ring as a token of love, and makes him swear that under no circumstances will he part with it. They are joined, unexpectedly, by Lorenzo and Jessica. The celebration, however, is cut short by the news that Antonio has indeed lost his ships, and that he has forfeited his bond to Shylock. Bassanio and Graziano immediately travel to Venice to try and save Antonio’s life. After they leave, Portia tells Nerissa that they will go to Venice disguised as men.
Shylock ignores the many pleas to spare Antonio’s life, and a trial is called to decide the matter. The duke of Venice, who presides over the trial, announces that he has sent for a legal expert, who turns out to be Portia disguised as a young man of law. Portia asks Shylock to show mercy, but he remains inflexible and insists the pound of flesh is rightfully his. Bassanio offers Shylock twice the money due him, but Shylock insists on collecting the bond as it is written. Portia examines the contract and, finding it legally binding, declares that Shylock is entitled to the merchant’s flesh. Shylock ecstatically praises her wisdom, but as he is on the verge of collecting his due, Portia reminds him that he must do so without causing Antonio to bleed, as the contract does not entitle him to any blood. Trapped by this logic, Shylock hastily agrees to take Bassanio’s money instead, but Portia insists that Shylock take his bond as written, or nothing at all. Portia informs Shylock that he is guilty of conspiring against the life of a Venetian citizen, which means he must turn over half of his property to the state and the other half to Antonio. The duke spares Shylock’s life and takes a fine instead of Shylock’s property. Antonio also forgoes his half of Shylock’s wealth on two conditions: first, Shylock must convert to Christianity, and second, he must will the entirety of his estate to Lorenzo and Jessica upon his death. Shylock agrees and takes his leave.
Bassanio, who does not see through Portia’s disguise, showers the young law clerk with thanks, and is eventually pressured into giving Portia the ring with which he promised never to part. Graziano gives Nerissa, who is disguised as Portia’s clerk, his ring. The two women return to Belmont, where they find Lorenzo and Jessica declaring their love to each other under the moonlight. When Bassanio and Graziano arrive the next day, their wives accuse them of faithlessly giving their rings to other women. Before the deception goes too far, however, Portia reveals that she was, in fact, the law clerk, and both she and Nerissa reconcile with their husbands. Lorenzo and Jessica are pleased to learn of their inheritance from Shylock, and the joyful news arrives that Antonio’s ships have in fact made it back safely. The group celebrates its good fortune

Some Useful Essays
Shylock in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice
The question frequently asked after reading The Merchant of Venice is:
is Shylock a victim or a villain? The best way to investigate this
question is to explore the text of the play to find out what
Shakespeare wanted us to believe.
Life for the Jews in the Elizabethan period was often very hard. In
England Jews were viewed with distaste, suspected of a number of
heinous crimes such as child murder. They were also distrusted by
Christians for the rejection of Christ as the Messiah and because they
did not lend money gratis. Many Christians were financially beholden
to the Jews.
Roderigo Lopez was a Jew of Portuguese decent, who fled to England in
1559 where he worked as a physician. His practice grew, and in time he
was appointed physician to the Queen of England. But the Earl of Essex
found what he believed to be evidence that Lopez had accepted a bribe
from the King of Spain to poison Queen Elizabeth. It is true that
Lopez had underhand dealings with Spanish spies, but it is to this day
unproven if Lopez ever intended any harm towards the Queen. However,
he was found guilty and in 1996 he was hung, drawn and quartered for a
crime he probably was never going to commit. The Merchant of Venice
was written two years later in 1596, and the treatment of Shylock is
similar to that of Lopez. Shylock is shunned by the Christians and
treated as an outcast. Possibly, Shakespeare wrote this play as the
Lopez case was fresh in people’s minds, and he knew that a play about
a detested Jew would be of great interest.
In Italy, where The Merchant of Venice is set, the Jews were being
greatly prejudiced against; they were being expelled from the country,
they were made to wear demoralising items such as ‘badges of shame’
and Jewish synagogues were turned into Christian churches. They were
made to wear cloaks, caps or badges which indicated that they were
beneath the Christians, and they were condemned to live in just one
part of the city, the Ghettos, which were often of bad condition. The
only place they were allowed to commune with Christians was on the
Rialto where they could do business. The Rialto is where we first meet
Many people say that Shakespeare drew ambiguous characters, and that
Shylock is neither a victim nor a villain. In fact Shakespeare’s
characters are very fairly created, nobody is entirely evil, none
entirely good, which makes for greater realism. Shakespeare seems to
deliberately try to make it hard for the audience to decide if Shylock
is a victim or a villain, as he does with all the characters. For
example, Antonio appears to be the perfect Christian, but is
un-Christian towards Shylock. Bassanio is more feckless, but he learns
through his mistakes. When Shakespeare first brings Shylock onto the
stage he shows us someone who, at first sight, appears to be a
stereotypical Jewish character: vengeful and grasping. Shylock’s
assertion that Antonio is a ‘good’ man refers not to Antonio’s moral
standing, but to his financial standing, and Shylock later says of
“How like a fawning publican he looks.
I hate him for he is a Christian:
But more, for that in low simplicity
He lends out money gratis, and brings down
The rate of usance here with us in Venice.”
This makes Shylock seem to be an unpleasant character who dislikes
Antonio just because he is a Christian and has different moral views,
but Shakespeare later shows us that Antonio’s treatment of Shylock is
just as bad, for he hates Shylock for exactly the same reason; that he
is of a different religion: ‘…he hath disgrac’d me, and hinder’d me
half a million,” Shylock says of Antonio, “laugh’d at my losses,
mock’d at my gains, scorned my Nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my
friends, heated mine enemies, and what’s his reason? I am a Jew.”
When Shylock justifies usury by quoting from the Bible, Antonio also
says Shylock is like a devil citing scripture for his own purpose, “An
evil soul producing holy witness…” and “a villain with a smiling
cheek. A goodly apple rotten at the heart’. Shylock reminds Antonio of
the names he has called him in the past: a ‘misbeliever’ a ‘cut-throat
dog’ and ‘all for use of that which is mine own’. In other words
Antonio hates Shylock for loaning him and others money. Shakespeare
makes the injustice which Shylock feels clear later in the speech:
“What should I say to you? Should I not say,
Hath a dog money? Is it possible
A cur can lend three thousand ducats? or
Shall I bend low, and in a bondman’s key
With bated breath, and whisp’ring humbleness
Say this: Fair sir, you spet on me on Wednesday last;
You spurn’d me such a day; another time
You call’d me dog: and for these courtesies
I’ll lend you thus much moneys.”
This speech shows that Shylock feels, rightly so, that Antonio’s
treatment of him is unjust; Antonio treats him very badly, but then
expects him to lend him money.
Another factor which induces sympathy towards Shylock is the scene in
which Shylock talks about the ring his partner Leah gave him, ‘it was
my turkis, I had it of Leah when I was a bachelor: I would not have
given it for a wilderness of monkeys.’ However, Bassanio the Christian
gives away the ring Portia gave him without too much regret, and this
shows that Shylock is definitely not lacking in emotion or love, and
in comparison shows Bassanio in a poor light.
In the courtroom Bassanio also says to Antonio:
“…life itself, my wife, and all the world,
Are not with me esteem’d above thy life.”
Shylock finds the Christian view on marriage shocking, as he feels
that husbands should give all to their wives, and love them more than
anybody else:
“These be the Christian husbands: I have a daughter,
Would any of the stock of Barrabas
Had been her husband, rather than a Christian.”
This tells us that perhaps Shylock has higher morals than Bassanio,
and indeed though the lead casket stated that Bassanio should ‘give
and hazard all he hath’, Bassanio is putting his friend in front of
his wife which is challenging the vows he has recently made.
One of the most important scenes in The Merchant of Venice is the
court scene, as this reveals a lot about Shylock and the other key
characters. The overwhelming feeling is that Shylock wants justice. He
lives in a community of Christians, who shun him at every opportunity
and treat him like a dog. Maybe Shylock does act villainously and
inhumanely by demanding a pound of flesh, but that could be because
he’s been victimised for so many years. Shylock wants justice for
justice sake, even though he knows all he will ever gain is his moral
victory: “…if it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge…”.
There seems to be great bitterness in this speech, as is
understandable; Bassanio might say that Antonio is the best of men,
but although Antonio treats Bassanio with kindness and friendship, he
treats Shylock quite the opposite. Shylock goes on to say:
“The pound of flesh which I demand of him
Is dearly bought, ‘tis mine, and I will have it.
If you deny me: fie upon your Law
There is no force in the decrees of Venice;
I stand for judgement, answer. Shall I have it?”
So Shylock is after justice, a justice which has been denied him and
his kind for a long time.
When Portia enters the court disguised as Balthasar, one of the first
things she says is, “Which is the Merchant here? and which is the
Jew?” Shakespeare has put that comment in for a reason; he might be
saying that neither is better than the other, and in the laws of
equality they are both the same.
During the court scene Portia makes an important speech:
“The quality of mercy is not strain’d…
It blesseth him that gives, and him that takes,
‘Tis mightiest in the mightiest…
It is an attribute to God himself…”
At face value, Portia is saying that Shylock should be merciful
towards Antonio, and release him from the bond, but Shakespeare is
also trying to put across a message that all mankind should be
merciful and accept mercy, and that nobody is entirely good or evil
but a combination of both.
In conclusion I feel that Shylock is more a victim than a villain,
although he does have a lot of unpleasant qualities. However, he seems
to be emotional and has a strong sense of morality, as is shown when
he talks about Leah and his views on marriage. The audience feels
sympathy for Shylock because it appears everybody is against him, even
his own daughter. Nothing seems to go right for him. In Shylock,
Shakespeare has created a character who is a villain in appearance but
a victim at heart

Injustice in The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice is horrid, cruel, and one of the most popular plays of Shakespeare. After a close reading of the play, I find it impossible to think of Shylock negatively; he is just better quality stuff than any of the Christians in the play. The Christians are truly vile, heartless, money-grabbing monsters, and when Shylock makes his final exit, destroyed by defeat, one should sense that our Christian brothers are at last completely ashamed of themselves.
I was hesitant to have anything to do with The Merchant of Venice after I first read it; all possible intrigue had dissolved as I read passages such as the following:
"He hath disgraced me and hindered me half a million, laughed
at my losses, mocked my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my
bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies, and what's his
reason? I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands,
organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions? ...If you prick
us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you
poison us, do we not die?" (III.1.49-55, 58-60)
This passage tears at my very soul!!! This play was to me a biting farce written to satisfy a bloody crowd.
While researching for this paper, I found two seemingly opposing facts about The Merchant of Venice - the Shakespearean play which have sparked the most controversy. This play is the most controversial and the most studied play in Israel. It is difficult to understand how this play could be beloved by the very people who are struck down. Apparently there are various readings of The Merchant of Venice which I had not considered.
Perhaps the play is neither pro-Jewish, nor pro-Christian. Sure, Shylock is painted as a money-hungry Jew throughout the Merchant,
"My daughter, O my ducats!
My ducats, O my daughter!"
Shylock is enraged his daughter has eloped with a Christian, but perhaps he is more concerned with the fate of his money.
Antonio, a Christian, has borrowed money from Shylock and refuses to pay it back. Here the reader may find a Jew-hating man who publicly spits on Shylock, and suffers from the grief of an unfullfilled homo-erotic relationship. Plainly, it can be seen that the Christians in this play are far from holy or perfect.
The illustrations which show neither the Jew nor the Christian to be perfect are countless. I feel better reading the play now that I have the option to view Shakespeare as a man of his time who was able to step away from the prejudices of the world in which he lived, and present injustice as he saw it.
What is the basis of the hatred between Shylock and Antonio ? Is the hatred justified in both cases or not?
The that Shylock and Antonio shares reflects the relationship between Christians and Jews at that time . Shylock hates Antonio for two reasons . The first hatred is a religious and the second is a professional one . Shylock hates Antonio for his Christianity . Shylock will do business with Christians foe it is profitable for him , but he will never eat , drink or pray with them as these things are against his religious principles . Shylock hates Antonio because he lends people money with free interests so he let Shylock bring down the rate of the interests in Venice . Shylock hates Antonio as he hates his sacred nation , calls him a dog , spits upon him and because Antonio makes fun of Shylock's interests in front of the all merchants . Antonio spoils Shylock's business . Shylock's hatred is not justified because he is a bad person and he deserves all what happens to him . Shylock tries to show himself as a victim but in reality he is a vengeful person . He lists all the wrongs which are done to him by Antonio , and he forgets that he deserves all what happens to him
On the other hand , Antonio hates Shylock because he is a jew . Christians think that jews are responsible for the crucification of Jesus . Antonio also hates Shylock because he is greedy and vengeful . Because Shylock loves money more than anything else or his daughter . All these reasons justify Antonio's hatred to Shylock . Shylock characterizes jews and he proves that he is a greedy , cunning , vengeful one . Antonio characterizes Christians and he proves that he is gentle , loyal and has a nobler ideal of humanity .
Discuss the relationship between Jessica and Shylock . Are we meant to sympathize with her running away with her father's money or not ? what does Jessica think of Shylock's character ?
The relationship that Jessica shares with her father is nearly weak . She is ashamed to her father's child and she feels that she is his daughter by blood not by manners . she lives unhappily with her father . she leads a cloistered life . She is forbidden by her father to join in any merry-making and must not even look out into the street at a procession passing by .
Jessica feels that her house is hell and she hopes to leave it . She is sorry to see Launcelot leaving their house as she is the only one who has relieved the somber atmosphere of house for her . she is well aware by moral code that she should not desert her father , but to become a Christian she must leave home . In the Elizabeth time , being a Christian overrodes all other obligations . Therefore , the deception of her father is seen as a virtue under circumstances . Jessica intends to elope with Lorenzo as it is the sole avenue to marry him and become a Christian . We are meant to sympathize with her running away with her father's money as she is the only heir of her father's money . Jessica is an unlikely daughter of Shylock .

What line of reasoning does the prince of Morocco follow in making his choice of a casket ? How does he justify his choice ?

Each of the caskets has an inscription on the outside to be read . The prince pauses over each casket to guess which contains Portia's portrait . The first casket is made of lead , says , " Who chooses me will give and hazard all he has " . He thinks that lead is surely worthless and deserves nothing . The next casket is made of silver , reads , " Who chooses me will get as much as he deserves " . Over this , the prince hesitates . He concludes that his birth , breeding , fortune , and grace make him deserving of Portia . He passes on the last casket , which is made of gold, and it tells the suitor , " Who chooses me will gain what many men desire". The prince believes that this is the casket that contains the portrait of Portia since the lady is sought by all the world . He concludes that gold is the only metal worthy of being associated with the portrait of Portia . As he opens the casket , he finds a skeleton's head with a message in its eye socket . It reads , " All that glitters is not gold " . He has failed to choose the right casket . Because he concerened with outer appearances and so makes a superficial choice . The death's head and its message underline the impermanence of earthy wealth . It is ironic that this prince makes his choice solely by appearance while he has earlier asked not to make the same mistake . Portia is delighted at his failure . What Portia's father wanted foe her is a husband with a gentle and humble temperament and inner nobility.

What lines of reasoning does the prince of Arragon follow in making his choice of a casket ? How does he justify his choice? The prince of Arragon passes over the lead casket because it is a common metal . He says that it must be more attractive before he loses everything for it . He refuses the gold casket because he will not choose what is desired by many suitors who come to marry Portia , who are foolish and deived by the outside appearance . He says that those who choose on the basis of eyes they will lose everything and be deceived . When he reads what is written on the silver casket he says that no one should come to marry Portia unless he deserves her . He is blind by the sense of his own worth . He believes that he is great enough to deserve Portia . As a result , he fails the rest of humility . The silver casket that he opens reveals a foolish head , which is a normal symbol and what his pride deserves . The prince feels foolish and quickly leaves.

• What are the inscriptions over the three caskets ?

• What are the conditions regarding the lottery of the casket?•

Why did some of the suitors who come to marry Portia refuse to take part in choosing a casket according to her father's plan?•

The first casket is made of lead , says , " Who chooses me will give and hazard all he has " . The next casket is made of silver , reads , " Who chooses me will get as much as he deserves " . The last casket is made of gold and it tells the suitor , " Who chooses me will gain what many men desire " .

• The conditions regarding the lottery of the casket says that :

If any suitor selects the wrong casket has to promise that :

1. He has to leave immediately without complain .

2. He should not woo another woman .

3. He should not unfold to anyone which casket he has chosen .

• Some of Portia's suitors have decided to return to return home without guessing as they have lost hopes of winning Portia . The conditions regarding the lottery of the casket are difficult to be followed if these
• suitors select the wrong casket , since these conditions are considered as commitments . Each of Portia's suitor fits into the English stereotype of various nationalities .
What is the significance of the conversation between Tubal and Shylock ? What aspects of Shylock's character are revealed through this talk ?
Tubal is a Jewish merchant and Shylock asks him if he has found Jessica . When Tubal answers him negatively , Shylock raves about his lost fortune and the money he is spending in trying to locate Jessica . Tubal states that one of Antonio's ships has been definitely lost . When Antonio hears the news he becomes happy and determines to take his pound of flesh from Antonio when he fails to repay his debt on time . He says that Antonio's flesh will feed his revenge , but Jessica's news compete with his delight in the news of Antonio .
Tubal plays on Shylock's greed . He raises Shylock's spirits and deflates them carefully , by alternating his references first to Antonio and then to Jessica , and showing Shylock how his daughter has given a ring to a merchant for a monkey . Tubal is interested in torturing Antonio . This indicates that the relationship among the Jews themselves is not a close one and indicates that Shylock is an outsider even amongst the Jews .

Why did the prince of Morocco and the prince of Arragon fail to choose the right casket while Bassanio succeed in choosing the right one?
Portia worries about Bassanio choosing the right casket so she tells Bassanio to wait for a few days before choosing one of the caskets because if he chooses the wrong casket , she will lose him forever . The eager Bassanio cannot bear to wait any longer . To ease the tension , Portia asks for a music to be played , each line of the song ends in a word that rhymes with lead . Portia is trying to help Bassanio in his choice , since she cannot directly help him and betrays her father's will .
In truth , Bassanio with his noble nature , needs no help in making the right decision . Bassanio recognizes that ugliness is often concealed by outer beauty and he refuses to be deceived by the outside appearances , loke those women who appear beautiful but in reality they are not so as they cosmetics . Bassanio rejects the gold casket , for he sees gold as deceitful and rejaects the silver casket because it is a sumbolic of money . He chooses the lead casket because he knows that true worth is often found beneath false appearances . Bassanio says that if the person follows his heart he will succeed . As a result , he rejects the gold and silver casket and chooses the lead one because its simple shape indicates that it hides a great thing .

Analyse Portia's speech on " Mercy" mentioning the impact of this speech on Shylock .

Portia disguised as a young doctor of law . She tells Shylock that he is within his legal rights , but he has to show mercy . For mercy blesses the one who gives it as well as the one who receives it . Any person cannot be forced to show mercy , because it comes naturally from the heart . One of the best qualities of mercy when it is shown from one who has power to one who has nothing . Mercy is one of God's qualities . If we ask God foe mercy and he insists on justice without mercy , most of us will be punished . As we ask God for mercy , we have also to show mercy . Mecy for a king is better than the crown that he wears . Portia speaks so much to allow some mercy , if Shylock insists on justice because the law has no choice but to take the pound of flesh . Shylock is not affected by Portia's speech and doesn't agree to change his mind . He insists to take his pound of flesh and he refuses to take the debt twenty times over . This proves that he is a hard-hearted , greedy , and revengeful person . He values money over his daughter and he values revenge over both .

Shakespeare in his famous " Trial scene " brings the play to its climax and reveals Portia as a skilful and cunning judge .Give an accurate account of the important developments in the trial of the merchant and how she finally reverses all the expectations of the Jew into despair .

Portia asks Shylock to have a surgeon at hand to prevent Antonio from bleeding to death . Shylock refuses even this concession , since it is not stated in the bond . As Shylock prepares to cut , Portia warns him that only a pound of flesh assigned tohim not a little more or a little less and he is not allowed to shed a single drop of blood . If he sheds one drop of Christian blood , then all his property will be confiscated by the state of Venice . Shylock is shocked as he knows that is impossible to to cut away

flesh without the loss of blood . Shylock reverses his stand and asks for

three times the debt instead . Portia stops Bassanio from giving Shylock the money and she insists that Shylock cut a bound of flesh . If it is a little more or a little less , then Shylock will be punished . Portia cites a law of Venice that says is an alien plots to take a Venetian life by direct or indirect attempts , half his will be given to the citizen while the other half will belong to the state . Moreover the life of the offen is at the mercy of the Duke .

Shylock says that taking his goods is equal to take his life . To show Shylock the difference between Christians and Jews , the Duke forgives him for his life . Antonio asks the Duke to allow Shylock to keep half of his good ( that will go to Antonio ) if he becomes a Christian and leaves all his goods to Lorenzo and Jessica in his will at his death . Shylock agrees to do these things . He loves money More than religion or anything else .

Read the following quotation that is spoken by Gratiano then answer the question below:

" O be thou damnd , inexecrable dog

And for thy life let justice be accus'd;

Thou almost mak'st me waver in my faith,

To hold opinion with Pythagoras, "

1. Who was Pythagoras ? What was his opinion that is referred to here?

2. Explain the passage in your own words .

3. What was of the abused person to these words?

1) Pythagors is a Greek philosopher who thinks that whenever animals die , their souls go to the human beings . Gratanio says that that Shylock's soul belongs to the soul of a wolf that killed so many people . After the wolf had died , his soul ran away and enterd Shylock's soul .

2) Gratiano likens Shylock to an inexecrable dog . And he blames the justice to let one like Shylock to be alive . What Gratiano says about Shylok is a reaction because Shylock refuses three thousand ducats instead of Antonio's pound of flesh and asserts that he is legally in his right . Because Shylock is revengeful and hard-hearted man . What Shylock has made aches Gratiano's heart . Gratiano believes what the Greek Pythagoras has said . This Greek philosopher has said that whenever animals die , thei souls go to the human beings .

3) Shylock is the abused person to these words . He proves that he is a cunning , hard-hearted and revengeful person . He insists to take Antonio's pound of flesh and refuses three thousand ducats instead . He asserts that he is legally in his right .No one can change his mind and Gratiano is only tiring his tongue and lungs .

Shylock says :

" What judgment shall I dread , doing no wrong you have among you many a purchased slave , which , like your asses and your dogs and mules , you use in object and in slavish parts . Because you bought them shall I say to you , let them be free , marry them to your heirs ! "

Explain the passage in your own words mentioning what does Shylock mean by this ? What does he try to justify?

Shylock tries to justify his cruelty to take Antonio's proud of flesh and he says that most Christians have salves and they use them like dogs . If Shylock tells the Christians to give these slaves a good food , to free them or to marry them to their daughters , the Christians will refuse , saying

that they have bought them legally and they are theirs . In a like manner ,

Shylock feels justified in asking for his bond . He will give the same answer that he has bought Antonio's pound of flesh and it is his . There is no power in Venice that can change his mind and prevent him from taking his pound of Antonio's flesh .

What is the dramatic significance of the last Act in Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice ?

This act is considered as a relaxed act after the conflict between Shylock and Antonio ends . This act is a comic one that has relieved the tragic somber atmosphere of the previous act when Shylock is sharpening his knife to kill Antonio . This act reveals that romance and nobility have triumphed , greed and hatred have been banished . The happiness and joy of Antonio and the three couples , Jessica and Lorenzo , Portia and Bassanio , Nerissa and Gratiano , is completed in this act .

In this act , the mystery of the rings and the identities of the young lawyer and his clerk are revealed . Portia hands Antonio a letter that explains the whole disguise and the story of how she was the lawyer and Nerissa the clerk at the court at Venice .

In this act , Portia tells Antonio that three of his ships have returned with their cargo . Nerissa then gives Lorenzo Shylock's will , by which all of Shylock's property will be inherited bu Lorenzo and Jessica upon his death . The last act of this play is the only chance that tells us about Jessica and Lorenzo's escape . It shows the romantic life that tey share and how happy they are .

" Shylock was more sinned than sinning " Discuss this with the references to Shylock character and punishment .

It is wrong to say that Shylock is more sinned than sinning as it indicates that his punishment is more than the crime he committed . What is correct to say is that Shylock is sinning more than sinned because the punishment that he receives is less than what he deserves . Shylock intends to kill Antonio directly if he is given the proper chance . The Venetian law says that if an alien plots to take a Venetian life by direct or indirect attempts , half his goods will be given to the citizen while the other half to the state . Moreover the life of this alien is at the mercy of the Duke who becomes the first picture of mercy and forgives Shylock for his life . To show Shylock the difference between Jews and Christians and to save Shylock damnation , Antonio asks the Duke to allow Shylock to keep half of his property that will go to Antonio if he becomes a Christian and leaves all his goods to Lorenzo and Jessica over his death .

Shylock is not forced to do anything and he has to decide which choice suits him . Shylock agrees to change his religion as he loves money more than his religion or anything else but at the same time he loves revenge more than both . The punishment that Shylock receives is less than what he deserves .
تـاجــر البندقيــة
دراما كومودية من تأليف الأديب الأنجليز الشهير ويليم شيكسبير. خلاصتها أن أنطونيو، التاجر الفينيسي، يستدين من المرابي اليهودي شايلوك Shylock ثلاثة آلاف قطعة ذهبية تمكينا لصديقه باسانيو Bassanio من الزواج من بورشيا Portia الثرية الجميلة. ويشترط المرابي على التاجر أن يقتطع رطلا من لحمه إذا لم يرد إليه المال في الموعد المضروب لذلك. ويوافق أنطونيو، ولكنه يعجز عن رد المال. فيصر شايلوك على تنفيذ ما ألزم به التاجر نفسه، وهو الموافقة على اقتطاع رطل من لحمه... وأثناء المحاكمة توافق بورشيا - بعد أن تنكرت واتخذت موقف الدفاع عن أنطونيو - على هذا الاقتطاع ولكن شرط أن لا يؤدي ذلك إلى إراقة نقطة واحدة من دم أنطونيو...
ملخص باللغة العربية \
في مدينه فينيسا "البندقية" بايطاليا،كان اليهودي الجشع"شيلوك"قد جمع ثروة طائلة من المال الحرام..فقد كان يقرض الناس بالربا الفاحش ..وكانت مدينه "البندقية"في ذلك الوقت من اشهر المدن التجارية،ويعيش فيها تجار كثيرون من المسيحيين..من بينهم تاجر شاب اسمه"انطونيو".
كان "انطونيو"ذا قلب طيب كريم ..وكان لا يبخل على كل من يلجأ إليه للاقتراض دون ان يحصل من المقترض على ربا او فائدة.لذلك فقد كان اليهودي "شيلوك"يكرهه ويضمر له الشر بالرغم مما كان بيديه له من نفاق واحترام مفتعل.
وفي اي مكان كان يلتقي فيه "انطونيو"و"شيلوك"كان "انطونيو"يعنفه ويوبخه،بل ويبصق عليه ويتهمه بقسوة القلب والاستغلال.وكان اليهودي يتحمل هذه المهانه،وفي الوقت نفسه كان يتحين ايه فرصة تسنح له للانتقام من "انطونيو".
وكان جميع اهالي "البندقية"يحبون "انطونيو" ويحترمونه لما عرف عنه من كرم وشجاعة ،كما كان له اصدقاء كثيرون يعزهم ويعزونه..ولكن اقرب الاصدقاء واعزهم على قلب "انطونيو"كان صديقا شابا اسمه"بسانيو"..وهو نبيل من طبقة نبلاء البندقية،الا انه كان صاحب ثروة بسيطة ،أضاعها وبددها بالاسراف الشديد على مظاهر حياته..وكلما كان يحتاج الى المزيد من النقود ليصرفها ،كان يلجأ الى صديقة "انطونيو" الذي كان لا يبخل عليه ابدا ويعاملة بكل كرم يليق به كصديق من اعز اصدقائة.
وفي احدى الايام قال"بسانيو" لصديقه "انطونيو" إنه مقبل على الزواج من فتاه ثرية ورثت عن ابيها ممتلكات وثروة كبيرة..وإنه يحتاج الى ثلاثة آلاف من الجنيهات حتى يبدو مظهره امامها كعريس يليق بها .
ولكن "انطونيو" لم يكن يمتلك هذا المبلغ في ذلك الوقت ..كان ينتظر سفنه القادمة المحمله بالبضائع التي يمكن ان يبيعها عند وصولها ..ولكي يلبي "انطونيو" طلب صديقه العزيز،قرر ان يقترض هذا المبلغ من اليهودي "شيلوك" ..على ان يرد له هذا الدين وفوائده فور وصول سفنه المحملة بالبضائع.
وذهب الصديقان الى "شيلوك" وطلب "انطونيو" منه ان يقرضه مبلغ ثلاثه الاف من الجنيهات بأي نسبة فائدة يطلبها،مه وعد بأن يرد اليه القرض وفوائدة عند وصول السفن في موعد قريب..
هنا...سنحت الفرصة التي كان يتحينها اليهودي "شيلوك"للتاجر "انطونيو" ..ودارت في ذهن اليهودي افكار الشر والأذى والانتقام...وظل يفكر طويلا فيما عساه يصنعه بهذا التاجر الذي يعطي للناس نقودابلا فائدة:هذا التاجر الذي يكرهني ويكره شعبنا اليهودي كله ..إنه يسبني ويلعنني ويسمسني بالكافر..وبالكلب الأزعر ..ويبصق على عباءتي كلما رآني ..وها هي الفرصة قد سنحت امامي لكي انتقم..واذا لم اغتنم هذه الفرصة فلن يغفر لي ذلك اهلي وعشيرتي من اليهود الآخرين..
قال "شيلوك"وهو يخفي الحقد والكراهية في قلبه:يا سنيور"انطونيو"..كثيرا ما شتمتني ولعنتني وركلتني بقدمك كما لو اني كلب من الكلاب..وهأنتذا جئتني وتطلب مني ان اساعدك بثلاثة الاف من الجنيهات..فهل تظن يا سيدي ان كلبا يمكنه ان يقدم لك مثل هذا القرض..؟!
فقال "انطونيو"بشجاعه:حتى او اقرضتني هذه النقود،فسوف اظل ادعوك كلبا واركلك بقدمي وابصق عليك وعلى عباءتك..اقرضني هذه النقود وافرض وزد عليها ما شئت من فوائد تطمع فيها..وسوف يكون لك الحق في ان تفرض على ما شئت من عقاب اذا لم اردها اليك في الوقت المتفق عليه.
وعندئذ قال "شيلوك"بكل خبث ودهاء إنه على استعداد أن يقدم لانطونيو هذا القرض بدون فوائد على الاطلاق..ولكن بشرط واحد:هو ان يذهبا معا الى المحامي ،وان يوقع "انطونيو"على عقد يبدو كما لو كان مزاحا،يتيح لليهودي "شيلوك"أن يقطع رطلا من لحم "انطونيو" ومن اي جزء يختاره "شيلوك" من جسم "انطونيو" وذلك اذا لم يرد اليه الالاف الثلاثة من الجنيهات في موعد محدد!
وحاول "بسيانو"ان يثني صديقه"انطونيو" عن توقيع هذا العقد اليهودي الماكر...ولكن "انطونيو" صمم على التوقيع دون خوف ....لأن سفنه وبضائعه ستصل قبل ان يحل موعد السداد بمدة كافية...ولن تكون هناك فرصة امام "شيلوك"لتنفيذ هذا المزاح...
وهكذا وقع "انطونيو" على العقد...!
أما الفتاه التي يحبها "بسيانو" ويتمنى الزواج منها فقد كان اسمها "بوريشا"...وكانت تتمتع الى جانب أخلاقها الرفيعة ورجاحة عقلها بثروة طائلة ورثتها عن ابيها..وكانت لها وصيفة اسمها "نيرسا" ..وكانت "بورشيا" تعيش في منطقة "بلومنت" القريبة من البندقية.
وبعد أن حصل "بسانيو" على النقود، التي اقترضها صديقه "انطونيو" من اليهودي "شيلوك" أخذ طريقة الى "بلمونت" ليعرض الزواج على حبيبته "بورشيا" ...وكان قد اصطحب معه تابعه المهذب "جراتيانو"ومجموعه من الخدم الذين يرتدون ملابس حسنه المنظر ليكونوا في خدمته مؤتمرين بأمرة...
ووافقت "بورشيا" على الزواج من "بسانيو"بسعادة غامرة...واعترف لها "بسانيو" بأن ممتلكاته قليلة .وأن الشئ الوحيد الذي يفخر به هو انتماؤه الى اسرة عريقة من النبلاء .فقالت له "بورشيا" إنها تهبه نفسها وكل أملاكها ...وأنه من الآن فصاعدا هو رب البيت ومن حقه أن يتصرف في كل شئ....وخلعت الخاتم من اصبعها وأهدته إليه،وطلبت منه الاَ يفرط في هذا الخاتم ابدا..
وكان التابع"جراتيانو" والوصيفة "نيرسا" يحبان بعضهما ويرغبان في تتويج هذا الحب بالزواج...لذلك فما أن علما بأن سيديهما سيتزوجان حتى أعلن "جراتيانو" انه يرغب في الزواج من "نيرسا"..
ووافق السيدان على ذلك بكل سرور...
ولكن لحظه الهناءهذه لم تستمر طويلا..فقد وصل الى "بسانيو" خطاب يتضمن أنباء مزعجة ومفزعه،فشحب وجهه وسألته "بورشيا" عن سر اضطرابه ،فقال لها بكل صدق إنه مدين لصديقة العزيز "انطونيو" بمبلغ ثلاثة الاف من الجنيهات...وقد اقترض صديقه هذا المبلغ من اليهودي "شيلوك" بناء على عقد يعطى لليهودي الحق في قطع رطل من لحم "انطونيو" اذا لم يسدد اليه القرض في موعد محدد..
وأراها الخطاب الذي وصله من صديقه الوفي "انطونيو" والذي يحمل انباء سيئة ..وكان الخطاب يقول :"عزيزي بسانيو"...فقدت كل سفني ولم اعد استطيع سداد القرض "لشيلوك" بعد ان حل موعد الدفع ومعنى ذلك ان اليهودي سيقطع رطلا من لحمي من اي جزء من جسمي وسوف تنتهي حياتي وكل ما اتمناه ان اراك قبل موتي ...
تاثرت "بورشيا" كثيرا بالمصير المؤلم لهذا الصديق المخلص النبيل وقالت إن على "بسيانو" ان يرحل فورا الى مدينه " البندقية" ومعه اضعاف هذا المبلغ ليحاول تصحيح هذا الخطأ وينقذ صديقة من براثن اليهودي "شيلوك" ووعدته بانها سوف تبذل كل جهدها بالوقوف الى جانبه في هذه المشكلة..
ولكن لكي يصبح "لبسانيو" الحق في التصرف في اموال "بورشيا" فقد كان لا بد ان يتم زواجهما فورا ...فتزوجا وتزوج ايضا "جراتيانو"و"نيرسا"..
وفور اتمام كل هذه الاجراءات سافر "بسيانو" وتابعه "جراتيانو" الى البندقية فوجدا "انطونيو" محبوسا بالسجن..
وحاول "بسيانو" ان يتفاهم مع اليهودي "شيلوك" الذي رفض قبول الثلاثة الاف من الجنيهات التي قدمها اليه "بسيانو" واصر "شيلوك" على ان يقطع رطل من لحم "انطونيو" طبقا لما تم الاتفاق عليه في العقد وبعد ان فات ميعاد السداد..
وتحدد موعد لمحاكمه "انطونيو" امام دوق البندقية ووقع "بسانيو" في قلق بالغ وحيرة شديدة..
بعد رحيل "بسانيو" خافت "بورشيا" ان يفشل "بسانيو" في انقاذ هذا الصديق الوفي النبيل الذي ضحى بحياته من اجل زواجها وقررت بينها وبين نفسها ان تذهب الى البندقية لتدافع عن هذا الصديق النبيل امام المحكمه ولكن كيف؟!
كان احد اقارب "بورشيا" محاميا كبيرا اسمه "بلاريو" فقامت بالكتابه اليه بكل تفاصيل المشكلة وطلبت منه ان يعطيها النصيحة في كيفية الدفاع كما طلبت منه ايضا ان يعيرها روب المحاماه حتى يمكنها الوقوف به امام المحكمه وسرعان ما وصلها رد المحامي "بلاريو" متضمنا كل النصائح والتفاصيل خطوة خطوة.
وهكذا تزيت"بورشيا" ووصيفتها "نيرسا" بدور كاتب المحامي وشدتا الرحال الى البندقية.
ودخلت الفتاتان الى قاعة المحكمه التي كانت منعقدة برئاسة دوق البندقية ومجموعه من المستشارين.وسلمت "بورشيا" الى المحكمه خطابا بتوقيع المحامي الكبير "بلاريو" يقول فيه انه كان ينوي الحضور الى البندقية للدفاع بنفسة عن "انطونيو" ولكنه يعتذر عن الحضور بسبب مرضة.
ويفوض الشاب المثقف الدكتور"بالتازار" وهو الاسم الذي سميت به "بورشيا" ليقوم بالدفاع نيابه عنه ..وقبل الدوق هذا الخطاب ووافق على ان يقوم الدكتور"بالتازار" بالدفاع عن " انطونيو" بالرغم من صغر سنه وبالرغم من ملامحة الغضة الرقيقة التي تشع بالنضارة....!
ودارت "بورشيا" بعينيها في قاعة المحكمه وشاهدت خصمها اليهودي الجشع"شيلوك" الذي خلا قلبه من الرحمه كما وشاهدت زوجها "بسانيو" الذي لم يستطع التعرف عليها وهي مرتدية ملابس الرجال وروب المحاماه وكان واقفا الى جوار صديقة الحميم "انطونيو" وقلبه مفعم بالحزن والاسى..
وقالت "بورشيا" او"الدكتور بالتازار المحامي" دفاعا عن "انطونيو" انه طبقا لقوانين البندقية فلا بد من تنفيذ الاتفاق الذي تم في هذا العقد .
وطلبت العقد من "شيلوك" لتقرأه ثم قالت ان هذا الاتفاق يعطي الحق لليهودي "شيلوك" ان يقطع رطلا من لحم "انطونيو" ولكن الرحمة ضرورية وواجبه ...إن تحقيق العداله لا بد ان يتم بالرحمه.وظلت تستعطف اليهودي لكي يكون رحيما بخصمه ما دام الدين قادرا على رد الدين ودفع الثلاثه الاف من الجنيهات.
وعندئذ قال "بسانيو" انه مستعد ان يرد لليهودي هذا المبلغ اضعافا مضاعفة ولكن "شيلوك" لم يستجب لاي عرض ،واصر على تنفيذ ما تم الاتفاق عليه في العقد وان يقطع رطلا من لحم "انطونيو".
وهنا تظاهرت "بورشيا" بقبولها لحكم القانون والتفتت الى "انطونيو" وطلبت منه ان يكشف صدرة ويستعد لهذه العملية القاسية التي سيقوم بها اليهودي ..
واخذ اليهودي يسن سكينه الحادة..
تساءلت"بورشيا" عن وجود الميزان الذي سيستخدم في وزن رطل اللحم وقالت لليهودي :قبل ان تقوم بقطع الرطل من لحم"انطونيو" يجب ان تحضر طبيبا حتى لا ينزف دمه الى ان يموت..
فقال "شيلوك" بغيظ:ان ذلك غير منصوص عليه بالعقد.
فقالت "بورشيا":نعم ان العقد يعطيك الحق في رطل من لحم "انطونيو" ولكنه لا يعطيك الحق في ان تجعله ينزف دما..ان إراقه الدماء جريمه يعاقب عليها القانون..فعليك ان تقطع رطل اللحم دون ان تريق ولو قطرة واحدة من دم هذا المسيحي..والا فإن قوانين البندقية ستطبق عليك فورا...فتصادر جميع ممتلكلتك وجميع بضائعك واموالك وتصبح حقا لحكومه البندقية!
وهنا هلل جميع الحاضرين في المحكمه فرحين..لقد اصبح من المحال على اليهودي "شيلوك" ان ينفذ خطته الوحشية الدنيئة لذلك فقد اضطر الى الاستسلام فورا وان يقول في يأس:إذن اعطوني نقودي وسانصرف الى حال سبيلي!
عندئذ صاح "بسانيو" متسرعا :ها هي نقودك فخذها ..ولكن "بورشيا" قاطعته قائله:انتظر ...ان العقد لا ينص الا على حق اليهودي في ان يقطع رطلا من لحم مدينه اذا فات ميعاد السداد ولم يقم المدين برد الدين فإذا استطاع اليهودي ان يقطع رطل اللحم دون ان يريق دم المدين فعليه ان يقوم بذلك الان ثم ان اليهودي قد ارتكب جريمه يعاقب عليها قانون البندقية ...هذه الجريمة هي التآمر على حياة احد مواطني المدينه ولأنك يا "شيلوك" قد تآمرت على حياة "انطونيو" فإن جميع اموالك ستصادر لصالح حكومه البندقية .... اما حياتك او اعدامك..فذلك امر متروك لرحمه الدوق رئيس المحكمه ليحكم ضدك بما يشاء طبقا للقانون فهيا اركع على ركبتك والتمس العفو عنك او الرحمه بك!!
وقال الدوق رئيس المحكمه :لقد عفونا عنك دون ان تتوسل الينا اما ثروتك وممتلكاتك فقد حكمنا بمصادرتها على ان يؤول نصفها الى "انطونيو" الذي كنت ستتسبب في موته..ويؤول النصف الاخر الى حكومه البندقية.
ولأن "انطونيو" كان طيبا وكريما فقد أبدى استعداده للتنازل عن نصيبة الى "شيلوك" بشرط ان يوقع على وصية تنص على ان تؤول ثروته بعد موته الى ابنته وزوجها...
فقد كان "انطونيو" يعلم ان لهذا اليهودي ابنه وحيدة احبت وتزوجت شابا مسيحيا اسمه"لورنزو" وهو صديق عزيز من اصدقائة..فغضب اليهودي على ابنته وقرر ان يحرمها من ميراثة وتركته بعد موته ..
واستسلم اليهودي ولم يجد مفرا...واضطر ان يقبل كل ذلك وبعدئذ حكم الدوق بإطلاق سراح "انطونيو" وانتهت المحاكمه .
وعندئذ تقدم "بسانيو" الى الدكتور "بالتازار" المحامي ليشكره على دفاعة الذكي الذي انقذ حياه صديقة "انطونيو" ولم يكن "بسانيو" يعلم ان هذا المحامي ما هوالا زوجته "بورشيا" وقال "بسانيو" بكل شكر وامتنان: إن تقديرنا لك لا يقدر بثمن وارجوك ان تقبل الالاف الثلاثة من الجنيهات التي كنا سندفعها الى اليهودي كأتعاب لك...
رفضت "بورشيا" أن تأخذ النقود ولكن "بسانيو" أصر على المحامي أن يقبل أي هدية يحددها ....وعندئذ قالت "بورشيا" :إذن اعطني قفازك هذا !
وعلى الفور خلع "بسانيو" قفازه وأعطاه للمحامي وعندما شاهدت "بورشيا" الخاتم الذي أهدته إليه ووعدها بألا يفرط فيه ابدا...وقالت له: ارجوك ..أعطني هذا الخاتم وسوف أقبله كهدية بدلا من الاتعاب....!
شحب وجه "بسانيو" وشعر بحرج شديد وقال معتذرا : بأن هذا الخاتم بالذات هدية من زوجته العزيزه ولا يستطيع أن يفرط أو يتصرف فيه ..وأنه على استعداد لشراء أغلى وأثمن خاتم في البندقية وتقديمه هدية للمحامي ولكن "بورشيا" أصرت على اخذ الخاتم الذي يلبسه "بسانيو" في اصبعه.
وانصرفت وهي تتظاهر بالغضب وانصرفت وراءها وصيفتها "نيرسا" التي كانت متنكرة في زي كاتب المحامي وعندئذ اقترح "انطونيو" على صديقة "بسانيو" ان يعطي الخاتم للمحامي وان يعتذر لزوجته عن هذا التصرف وازداد حرج "بسانيو" وخاف ان يتهم بأنه ناكر للجميل فخلع الخاتم واعطاه لتابعه "جراتيانو" ليلحق بالمحامي ويعطيه اياه...
وعندما اخذت "بورشيا" الخاتم طلبت من "جراتيانو" أن يبلغ شكرها لسيده..وهنا طلبت "نيرسا" من زوجها "جراتيانو" الذي لم يعرفها وهي متنكرة في زي الرجال ،أن يعطيها الخاتم الذي يلبسه في اصبعه(وكانت "نيرسا" قد اهدت لزوجها هذا الخاتم وأقسم لها ألا يفرط فيه) ولم يجد "جراتيانو" مناصا سوى ان يخلع الخاتم ويقدمه الى الكاتب ...وانصرفت "بورشيا" ووصيفتها عائدتين الى بيتهما .
جلست الزوجتان "بورشيا" و"نيرسا" تنتظران عودة زوجيهما "بسانيو" و"جراتيانو" ..ووصل الزوجان ومعهما "انطونيو" ليتعرف على زوجة صديقة الكريمه وما هي لحظات حتى نشب شجار بين "جراتيانو" و"نيرسا" التي اكتشفت ان زوجها قد فرط في الخاتم الذي أهدته له ،واتهمته بأنه أعطاه لامرأه أخرى..وعندما حاولت "بورشيا" التدخل لفض النزاع بين الزوجين، اكتشفت هي الاخرى ان زوجها "بسانيو" قد فرط في الخاتم الذي اهدته له واتهمته بأنه اعطاه لامرأه اخرى....
وعبثا حاول الزوجان ان يقنعا زوجتيهما بأنهما قد أعطيا الخاتمين للمحامي وكاتب المحامي وذلك بعد ان رفض المحامي ان يأخذ أتعابا سوى الخاتم الذي كان يلبسه "بسانيو".
وتظاهرت الزوجتان بالحزن والغضب ..بينما ساد حزن حقيقي في قلب كل من الرجال الثلاثة ..وكان "انطونيو" اشدهم حزنا ..لذلك فقد قال "لبورشيا" بتأثر : سيدتي ..ارجو ان تغفري لي لاني تسببت في هذا الشجار ..وفي ان زوجك الكريم قد اعطى الخاتم للمحامي الذكي العظيم الذي انقذ حياتي ..وإني على يقين يا سيدتي بأن زوجك سيحافظ على ثقتك فيه طوال حياته.
وعندئذ قالت "بورشيا" ولأجل خاطرك يا سيدي ..فسوف أعيد اليه هذا الخاتم وهو نفس الخاتم الذي اهديته من قبل ..وفوجئ الرجال بأن المحامي الدكتور "بالتازار" لم يكن سوى "بورشيا" نفسها..وأن كاتب المحامي لم يكن سوى "نيرسا" ..وفرح الرجال كثيرا بهذه المفاجأه ..وفرحوا أكثر وأكثر عندما أعطت "بورشيا" "لانطونيو" خطابا يحمل أنباء طيبة بأن سفنه قد وصلت سالمه ولم تلحق بها أي خسارة..

2 التعليقات

قصة راااااااااااااائعة ..... وكاتب اروووووووع ....♥♥♥♥

قصة مرة راءعة